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Book I J f

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Шо» P dd. Al

J.S.Nagra M.A; M.Ed; Ph.D Sidney Stringer Comprehensive School & Community College Cox Street, Coventry.CV1 SNL GLK.) ‘Ul. <

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Published by: J. S. Nagra M.A., M.Ed., Ph.D. 399, Ansty Road, Coventry CV2 3BQ. Tel: 0203 617314

All rights reserved with the author. No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, in any form or by any means, electrical mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

ISBN 1 870383 01 X

Ist Edition: November 1984.

Reprint: August 1986. 2nd Revised Edition: March 1988.

This book is also available from:— . Jaysons & Co., 265-267 Soho Road, Handsworth, Birmingham Tel. 021-523 6851 . Virdi Brothers, 102, The Green, Southall, Middx. Tel. 01-574 4765 . Independent Publishing Co. Ltd., 38. Kennington Lane, London SE 114 LS. Tel: 01-735 2101 . Star Book International 112, Whitefield Street, London, W1. Tel: 01-388 9832 . Books from India (U.K.) 45, Museum Street, London, W1. Tel: 01-405 7226 . Asian Bookshop 45, Graftonway, London, W1. Tel: 01-387 5747 - Shakti Book House, 46 High Street, Southall, Middx. Tel: 01-843 1689.


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My sincere thanks are due to Dr. Mangat Rai Bhardwaj of Handsworth Technical College. Birmingham. who read the first draft of the book and gave valuable suggestions.

1 am also grateful to Dominic Commane and Cornlicous Barton students of Panjabi at Sidney Stringer Comprehensive School and Community College. Cox Street, Coventry for illustrating the book.

I very much thank Hopkins & Bailey, Birmingham, for getting the book printed on time.

I am also grateful to Mr. R. Akant (graphic designer), 22 Khana Market, Tanda Chowk, Jalander Pb. India for designing the book.

Finally and above all, | am deeply indebted to my wife, Satwant Nagra, for her inspiration and encouragement throughout.

March 1988. J.S. Nagra Author


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This book is the first one in the ‘Panjabi Made Easy’ series. It is meant primarily for beginners of Panjabi. It may be of use to more advanced learners and teachers of students whose first or dominant language is English. It is also the first book in the series designed for those students preparing for the G.C.S.E. examination in Panjabi.

Slightly modified Roman script is used throughout to facilitate the learning of Panjabi sounds, but not to replace the Panjabi script. I believe that learning the Panjabi script is an exciting intellectual adventure which must not be missed by anyone interested in the language, though it is perfectly possible to learn spoken Panjabi without learning the Panjabi script.

All learners are advised to listen attentively to native speakers of Panjabi. The Panjabi script represents the Panjabi sounds fairly systematically (sometimes more so than the Roman alphabet represents the English sounds). but no script is perfect.

The meanings of some of the words used in each lesson are given in the lesson

itself. For the meanings of the other words, consult the list on pages 45-48.

March 1988. J.S. Nagra.


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An Important note on Pronunciation Panjabi has ten sounds which are called vowel sounds. These are written with the help of three letters:— Ө, m and е. They can be divided into three groups.

(i) group—(u) e Ө 6 (ii) m group (а) w oA m Gi) group (i) fe da (i) u Ө Like the second sound in the English word put. u e Like the second sound in the English word boot. o This sound is also used by the older Punjabis in the word pole. Learn

it by imitating them.

(ii) a m Like the first sound in the English word about. à mmn Like the first sound in the English word arm. M— Like the second sound in the English word cat but slightly longer.

Like the second sound in the English word pot but slightly longer.

(iii) i fg Like the second sound in the English word fit. 1 8] Like the second sound in the English word deep. e Ë. This sound is used by the older Punjabis in the word gate. Listen to and imitate them.

Since we had to follow the principle of one sound. one symbol. and since there are more sounds in Panjabi than there are letters in the English alphabet we had to add bars and dots to some of the English letters and to introduce new symbols z and 2

A bar over the symbol (as in a. Т. u) shows that the sound is long.

A dot under a symbol (as in td n.p shows that the sound is produced by curling the tongue against the roof of the mouth. It is very important to produce these sounds in this way and not in the English way. otherwise there can be confusion. Without dots. t. d. n should

be pronounced as in French and not as in English. (Help should be sought from a teacher of French).

When h occurs after k. t. t. c. p (as in kh. th. th. ch. chh. ph) it should not be pronounced as a separate sound but the sound preceding h should be pronounced with a strong puff of air.

The symbol ~~ when placed over vowel letters indicates that the vowel is pronounced both through the nose and the mouth.


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9. ddor! and t, th, d, dh. Look at the following diagrams carefully and note the position of the tongue for pronunciation of the Panjabi sounds compared with that for the English sounds. If you want

your spoken Panjabi to be properly understood. avoid pronouncing these sounds like the English t and d.

When you pronounce the English t and d, the tip and the upper side of your tongue touches the gumridge behind the upper teeth.

English t and d

It is important that when you pronounce the Panjabi t th d dh nrandi(2z2 g = © a

you should curl your tongue backwara and the lower side of yourtongue touch the hard palate.

Panjabi t th d dh n r 1 © a 8

When you pronounce the Panjabi t th. d. dh. a е Ч the tip of your tongue should touch your teeth.

Panjabi t th d dh з



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Elephant Ja



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Camera |


za Khota

Ghora Horse | шай Ghari Watch

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е Мјапја Nia

This letter is not used to begin a word


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x |


öst Thodi Chin

Dàkia Postman

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This letter is not used to begin a word

उघला Tabla Drum | 3897 Talwar Sword

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oe Dodhi Milkman

edus Darakhat Tree

iB £ ¿ N

पागा aga पभेङ्गी Dhamori Wasp

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ш =


Phull Flower

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A Bhed Sheep

Yaa Murgi Hen | Het = Machhi

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Rabar Rubber

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JE aka ——— ——


SH" Waja Instrument

This letter is not used to begin a word


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Khat Letter

ठाघण्ठ' Gubéré Balloon Carpet

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tu rli Fountain

This letter is not used to begin a word


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etters n


Can you identify the

g मः чач 3 чече Hs


Mukta (a) Наз" No Sign

YA i p Ls | wd Hu і Bus a a Ghar Sapp to finish House Snake qu मग नमळ Cup Jug Kamal 15 <s qaq Han Wal Kanak are towards Wheat मठ मड Heg San Sabh Matar were all Peas नळ ठप яаа да! Rakh Sarak Wateror burn to put Road Jg usss Chal Das Parbat Go Ten Mountain CES JIH езе Еаг Сагат Dard Catch hot Pain 24

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аз Б उठ Kar Gal Tar to do Talk Swim or

Cucumber 953 бан ея Galet Naram Farsh Wrong I क, 5 Soft Floor

HH 99 Ug 95 + गरु аз + JH +-बथ AUA ез Ug डळ उछ-+-उछ WS ad+ ay sur JU TH 99 J-HS Wd उठ + IHS हळ बट +

HH उड ug डल उछ |

fW e U^

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a'g Car

Tad Gajar Carrot

ag Char Four

g'3 Rat Night

Kanna (à) a" (') as in Arm,Charm,Farm Kanna makes the sound longer

अजग wm a Come "et ज्ञा Ja Go Wat था Kha Eat gi gr Ga Sing Sit ठा Ма Мо

wg घब Har Balak Necklace Child पागा Dhaga < Thread gg! ढात्ना Chacha waja Uncle Harmonium HHT ata! Mama Kala (Mother's brother) Black Uncie Slat тт Nana Pala (Mother's Father) old घाघा माळा

Baba ~ sala Grandfather (wife's brother)


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Chamcha Spoon

шаа Park

उठा Hara Green

Је! Нама Air

usr Pata Address

चला Chala Drive

Bihari (1) аә (1)

as in week,seen.lt is a long sound.

qui йез wat Hathi Heater Ghari Elephant Watch पोटो मामी Siti Masi Whistle Aunt (Mother's Sister) wd ута Chachi Pani Aunt (Father's younger brother's wife) Water उष्टी ats Tài (Father's elder brother's wife) Git Song wet बाली Dàdi Kali Grand mother (Father's mother) Black set ut Nani Pi Grand Mother (Mother's Mother) Drink gat witet ast Hari Ai Gai | Green Came Went :


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яч язе Sabzi Sardi Vegetable Cold а बाडी Wi Coffee Also

wet | ठाठी डी ष्टी | मामी बात fes met | ug wet ava fég आष्टी ssl ws died яә" | ән वाढो थी | उठी ин] था |

गीउ' टो set आष्टी | ser айз ठा za |


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Aunkar (ч) «m (.)

as in Full , Pull

és गळग्घ aset

Phul Gulàb Kulfi

Flower Rose Ice-cream

waat बठमी яа

Murgi Kursi Mur

Hon” Chair Come back Turn

मठग्घ Ва HH

Juráb Óh Kbush

угар (He, She, That) Happy

He JA Өзет

Ѕи Rus Ud-

Listen to get angry ча

ча us

Bun Pul

Knit Bridge

39 gust

Tur Tuhada

Walk Yours

ан IS HE | HRW | बाबा gH = | टिंब бтн ет इंल feu | बडी ठग था | нен us | ug डल उठ उछल | US दस ठग Ят |


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Dulankar (ü) e$'ws()

as in Moon, Soon,Food

ge wa неў Воҳа Chakü Müli Plant Knife Radish

net чез 313 Süi Hoover Jharü Needle Broom agza Bes na Kabutar . Luton Alu Pigeon (city in U.K.) Potato गहे AJA BE Gaü Süraj Lün Cow Sun Salt 35 Has ya Jhuth School Dhür Lie Dust

साबु ठाल Wg डिल | наз a | उुडठ बठ | неї ठा | Чет छा | wu fe» | Hsu gU fam" | a433 == | «Ө री ug ठग eg | टाळ fea छुट ш | घुट wísH aa | неї fév чаг uri Het ठग्छ анч मी edt री ous su!


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Lavan (е) ="! (`)

as in Rain,Pain

ае! HS 33 Kelā Sher Bhed Banana Lion Sheep मेघ Hs! ud Seb Mela Hare Apple Fair Green edo 313 ШЕ; Train Tàre Ate Stars And ठे ача Ва!! Sare Kapre All Clothes 38 "3 fours Tet Sade Niane Oil Ours Children = ~ ^ ёз बाते sts Chher Bhare Nile Touch Heavy Blue 3918 EE Tuhade Beri yours Boat 33

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483 ечат

Blade Wekhna

" To look

JHH анан Sua! Ramesh Kamlesh We chna (Name of a boy) (Name of a boy) To Sell

WA माडे थत жат कडे. ठाउ टा ча", माडे ठग्छ Wwe | हेत 525 295 fea ятат |

मेघ Ww | मते AS Bt थाळा | THA "S IHA से ठाल HS! Qus Are" |

33 ठार wfs ag | 483 ठा 8H | HS मा | Hg ез ёч | 3'3 fae | wa sts aus पा d наз मा |

usatu टठेठ fey मर्प्टला ug Had melas 3 нент | 2

жы” суша МЕ < n rS ९॥//// 34

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Dulavan ( ге) एण्ड (^) as in Fat, Hat, Cat

яа анат टेलीडीवठ Bag Camera Television ya yes

Peer Paedal

Foot on foot

Зет Hs

Aetwar Mela

Sunday Dirty


Sær Mæle -

Walk Dirty (Plural of MS )

बेल 3 95 Bhen He Beth Sister is To sit

ичде रे qus HS उठ | fans भेडड'्ठ Aas ठा | анат ठीब बत | жн बळ fours 28195 Ws Vue उठ |

बेळ ठग्छ furs aji HS ача st था। sas За fea बी ते ? їч ная waT सै |


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Hora (o) 3 (7)

as in Boat, Goat

wet a2 पंडा Ghora Coat Khota Horse Donkey Ha He we Mor Mota Khao Peacock Fat Eat as del we Kol Roti Рао Near Chapati Wear as



माडा 33" 8डरा 9 | 3s 95 {ёш ठे | um Зя we 3|

wa de wG, wget d | S5 ठा घे | ФИН a gat मेटा 9 |

ug гв Sq Өч ча ш उतरा ठे uz fazaa 9 | Йез बेल 85 |


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Kanora (2) asa (`) asin Taught, Fought, Caught

ust gs! єнї

Pori Hathora Foji

Ladder Hammer Soldier

ast js! Чат

Koli Rola Pona

Dish Noise 3 4

а= ай

Кәп Kori

Who Bitter

ga मसा

Dor окһа

Вип Difficult

ü Hs Sa

so Mot Fj

Hundred Death Army

वेडी fey टाक w | nas fez वेळा ठा था | а= ddl 9 | srl fgg gat टी भंड गे aet | पाठी es Ue मग sd dad ast 9, fen Bet. da а ws astu d wa अन ae wfe 9? gH8 B'S Hu Sa | Yat छा а ads З я' | H Wis melas 3 яа! wy Š |


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Adhikk mua (7)

v doubles the sound of the following consonant in the word,

It sometimes changes the meaning of the words.

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"ru Pakka Fast, Hard

ast Gaddi Train

siat Jutti Shoes


Hut _ Makkhi Fly



fee Itt Brick fast Billi Cat ат

Mittha Sweet

asio ds! fee met | на fee ша था | ša ҥе аз | wa нен ठे du ठगी थीठा | asm fee aga ठग dn | dz fs ugs fumrər asea ð | fée a wa | wu fio इल È | жаз Чё उठ | Әнә Нә" Ya зә 9 | अम Hdl Hut xu fey wae ð edus d ЧЗ Ha | Qn डी ast dct ठे | жя mises 9, fen za mas Єч set 9 |


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Tippee fšëwu (°)

Tippee ° gives the sound of a mild 'n'. vowel sound with which it is used.

It nasalises the Tipee is used with

those words which have symbols either in the beginning or below the words (eg f -,2). Tipee is also used with words

having Mukta. Hg" Mundà Boy

मिंग Sing Horn

{яш Singh (Name of a boy)

fis Pind Village

faa Sinj

To water

Ja Changa Good

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fene Engine

Heg Sundar Beautiful

Hu Sungh Smell

गाठ Angür Grapes

Че Dhund Fog



du Dand Teeth

us Dhund Search

usa Patang Kite

ne su | ёз मंथ | ЯЗ ww at टे अंडे ठा Aue fñw 3| Ча edus 3 95 उठ। nfdes टी ge fea fis fea net) ЦЕ] Өз sd उठ | uad! е टं मिंग Jd उठ। ठंड Їч a a) азиз fea संगो बड़ी 9 |

Xx Ча Өз ठरे उठ |


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Bindi fše('`)

Bindi ( * ) also gives the sound of mild 'n'. It too nasalises

the vowel sound with which it is used. Bindi is used with

r, 1, १, A, = and‘ Where the Bindi does not give

any ‘n’ sound but simply nasalises a vowel weindicate it by placing the“ symbol above the vowel.

a ai nig! Ga Ka Andà Cow Crow Egg

Wi ate डंडे Ma Nid Bhande

Mother Sleep Utensils

हां _ sre nig Chha Géd Sag Shade Ball Copy gt fae adt Ha Kiü ' . Kaenchi Yes Why Scissors

ai fea उछ'ब dat 3) गां è wa षठ de उठ | ate эй wet | de ss us | mig ет жне нет | gig пе ad | а ws war बट | विट nas faQ^ sat wet | 42

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Rara (R) in the foot of a letter Yat aa" (. )

When R (4) is written as a sub- script below another letter it is cailed the 3 іп the foot. Неге it is important to remember that the vowel symbol used with the upper symbol is pronounced after the 3. For Example,in the word та the o sound of the symbol ^ is pronounced after а

Bt माठ mus ni भिउमठ Shrimàn April Amritsar Sir A city in India मी डी _ feng!

Shrimati Istri

Madam Woman or Press

fans ая чи" Krishan Angrez Prikhia Name of a person English man Examination ач yaa usta Karodh Programm Parvin Anger ы Name of a girl

йз ठग्छ Un ав | xi fysna fea ёз' ніча 9 | बेप बठ | पुडीठ माडे wa भाष्टी | meh fea niga भंडा ते | wat mus fee femi टा Цаатн due set Tess Te |


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J at the end of a word in Panjabi is not pronounced. Such words are pronounced with a high tone. Some of these words commonly used in Panjabiare given beiow :-

साठ, ay, fea, Qu, НӘ, ra, aga, stg, ala, AT

We mark the high tone with symbol Pronounce these words as :-

979 Cha JJ d ag ra Әј wi fea é HJ g ó ig mi m La, Hg Mu aay Kara

Pronounce these words without any 2 /H/ but with high tone. Ask a native speaker of Panjabi to pronounce these words and imitate him or her.

ud {ёз 3///(0)/ the foot of a letter, J symbol used as a subscript or U in the foot as it is called, is not prunounced in Panjabi. Most (but not all) Panjabi words with /h/g in the foot are pronounced with high tone. Again, imitate the native speaker in Panjabi.

us Pár (to read) da Bann(to tie) 99 Chat (toclimb) y яа Jár ( root ) WISE! Alana

Чай da | edus 3 ठा яң fen ge टो 1 ян out 9 1 wruat fas us | 44

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= TH Sate db fes


gu famr ЧЕ



Шөн वभीन्न

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Panjabi in Roman


Sham saban nal khana aram kaka ај) rakh cut Kiran tak nehar lia Nirmal bus wich par jahaz tili jaga Gita Shila waja Ram _ Я Da/di/de/dian chhil la

palish kamiz 45


name of a boy



to eat, meal


male child


to keep/ to put

to cut

name of a girl

up to


to bring

name of a boy/girl

name of a boy/girl






to light

name of a girl

name of a girl


name of a boy



to plant/put

has set

tail s ==

pulse ] =N Ya put op (СҮ ^ lish | С

shi e-— |


Page Panjabi

34 жет

35 Fee

36 33

зт sm

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Panjabi in Roman

Script si _ dari jhar dhür ana fer dekhan jan malish Mandeep Major te Sukhdev gaee thik aj-kal bohat dekhde piar ki tota bol riha hae tej chalda hae bhra charda hae wekho hinkda larai mot ho gai bhar der _ is lai Kuldip aia hae mekh thok




to sow, was carpet

dust off


to come


to see

to go


name of a boy/girl name of a boy on

name of a boy/girl went

mend, repair these days

a lot

watch, see love



is speaking fast goes/walks brother


look/see neighs battle/fight died



therefore name of a boy/gir! has come


to hammer

| u a rraFxs Panjabi m Roman







чета Hc

wA a oat »n9 Ча

मिलेट qafeug ўн





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kotha/kothe mil Kulbir Mandeesh pita class piara janwar mar angur Е khate/khata Rashvir mera mittar sajji patte suk _ chhoti chhuti chup ji nam gai _ bakri kuri do chalak than maenu _ nahi aundi khed amlette Kulwinder prem wada shehr _ visakhi






name of a boy/girl name of a boy/girl drank




to kill



name of a boy/girl my





small/younger holiday


used for respect name







to me

does not come play


name of a boy/girl love

big, elder


Panjabi festival



Panjabi in Roman

Panj abi S cript दाग्टदाता gurdwara TJ ra ч eih (6) Өч oh«(&) Нч mi Sg las YI mu 4 aad kara sh ts बीउ wi "md sa _ पगडी pagri/pag Bat lami muet āpni

M नो


I kave

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Sikh temple path




to put down mouth Indian sweet thirty twenty breath turban




This book is the first one in the ‘Panjabi Made Easy’ series. Itis .-’ meant primarily for beginners of Panjabi. It may be of use tc more advanced learners and teachers of «:udents whose first or dominant language is English. It is aiso the first book in tie series designed for those students preparing for the G.C.S.E examination in Panjabi

The Author -

Dr. J.S. Nagra teaches at Sidney Stri ager Comprehensive School and Community College Coventry, U.K. He is also . part-time lecturer at Warwick Universit"...—

He is the Chairman of the Joint Matriculation Board's , Preparatory Sub-Committee of Panjabi (Advanced) and a men.»er of the Subject Committee of Modern Foreign., Languages. He is an Assessor for the Royal Society of Arts, Diploma in Community Languages Ex:.mination (Panjabi). He is also the Chief Examiner of the new G.C.S.E.examination in Panjabi (NEA):

Dr. Nagra has written several research papers concerning the education of ethnic minority children in Britain. He is also *he ` author of the following books.

A’ Level Panjabi; ,

O” Level Panjabi.”

Panjabi Made Easy Book 1

Panjabi Made Easy Book 2

Panjabi Made Easy Book 3.

Stories for Young Children in Panjabi and Lnglish Book . О’ Level Hindi. А `

Hindi Made Easy Book 1.,

G.C.S.E. Panjabi (forthcoming).


ISBN 1870383 01X ` ame.

9० мемам =

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